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What can causes epididymitis?

Date:2012-12-14 click:

Epididymitis is a medical condition characterized by discomfort or pain in of the epididymis, a curved structure at the back of the testicle in which sperm matures and is stored. Epididymitis is usually characterized as either acute or chronic: if acute, the onset of testicular pain is often accompanied by inflammation, redness, and warmth in the scrotum; if chronic, pain may be the only symptom. In either form, testicular pain in one or both testes can vary from mild to severe, and one or both epididymedes may noticeably swell and/ or harden. The pain is often cyclical and may last from less than an hour to several days.

 
Epididymitis is infection or less frequently, inflammation of the epididymis (the coiled tube on the back of the testicle). The majority of men that develop epididymitis develop it because of a bacterial infection. Although males of any age can develop epididymitis, it occurs most frequently between ages of 20 to 39. When it develops in children, it is usually due to inflammation caused by trauma. However, some children develop it because of bacterial infections, some of which may be due to sexual abuse. In general, individuals have discomfort and pain in the area of the testicle(s) or groin; some may develop fever, penile discharge and blood in the urine. 
 
What can cause epididymitis?
 
The causes of epididymitis can be told by your doctor when you are diagnosed that you get it.Though urinary tract infections in men are rare, bacterial infection is the most common cause of acute epididymitis.The bacteria in the urethra back-track through the urinary and reproductive structures to the epididymis. There can be associated urethritis (inflammation of the urethra). In rare circumstances, the infection reaches the epididymis via the bloodstream.
 
In sexually active men, Chlamydia trachomatis is responsible for two-thirds of acute cases, followed by Neisseria gonorrhoeae and E. coli (or other bacteria that cause urinary tract infection). Particularly among men over age 35 in whom the cause is E. coli, epididymitis is commonly due to urinary tract obstruction. Less common microbes include Ureaplasma, Mycobacterium, and cytomegalovirus, or Cryptococcus in patients with HIV infection. E. coli is more common in boys before puberty, the elderly, and men who have sex with men. In the majority of cases in which bacteria are the cause, only one side of the scrotum or the other is the locus of pain.
 
Non-infectious causes are also possible. Reflux of sterile urine (urine without bacteria) through the ejaculatory ducts may cause inflammation with obstruction. In children, it may be a response following an infection with enterovirus, adenovirus or Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Rare non-infectious causes of chronic epididymitis include sarcoidosis (more prevalent in black men) and Behçet's disease.
 
Any form of epididymitis can be caused by genito-urinary surgery, including prostatectomy and urinary catheterization. Congestive epididymitis is a long-term complication of vasectomy.Chemical epididymitis may also result from drugs such as amiodarone.

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