Date:2017-04-20 click:
Epididymitis is an inflammation in epididymis, a tube that located at the back of the testicles that stores and carries sperm. When this tube is infected and becomes swollen, it can cause pain and swelling in the testicles. Epididymitis rarely induces complications, however, it can lead to male infertility. 
This is what happens if you have epididymitis:


Acute epididymitis is caused by urinary tract infection spreading from vas deferens to epididymis. The operation of transurethral device, frequent catheterization and indwelling catheter after prostatectomy are all the causes of epididymitis. 
Imcomplete treatment can make acute epididymitis develop into chronic epididymitis. The most common pathogenic bacteria are Escherichia coli, followed by Proteus, Staphylococcus, Enterococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Chlamydia trachomatis can also cause acute epididymitis. 
Most of the pathogenic bacteria enter the epididymis retrogradely through the vas deferens. In addition, epididymitis can also be caused by bacteria invading epididymis through lymphatics or blood, but it is rare. 
It can be classified into two types: acute epididymitis and chronic epididymitis. The acute one usually lasts for 6 weeks or less while the chronic one lasts for more than 6 weeks.  
1. Acute epididymitis

The onset of acute epididymitis is dramatic. It can cause a series of symptoms including fever and chills, pain and redness in the infected scrotum, pain in groins and lower abdomen, swelling and tenderness in epididymis and testicle, etc.
2. Chronic epididymitis

The symptoms of this form is milder than acute one. It can cause scrotal swelling, pain in lower abdomen and ipsilateral inner thigh, enlarged and hardened epididymis, thickened ipsilateral vas deferens, pain during sexual intercourse and ejaculation, pain during urination or bowel movements, etc. If it’s bilateral chronic epididymitis, it will cause low sperm count and induce infertility.  
Epididymitis is usually accompanied with a urinary track infection. Thus, you will also suffer from urinary symptoms if you have epididymitis. Generally, you will have urinary frequency and urgency, and pain when urinating.

Your doctor will begin with a physical exam to check your groin area to look for any lymph node enlargement and check your scrotal and testicular areas to look for any swelling of the testicles. Your doctor may also do a digital rectal examination to check the tenderness or enlargement of the prostate. After that, you doctor might conduct diagnostic tests:   
1. STI Screening: Your doctor will obtain a sample of the discharge from your urethra. The sample is checked in laboratory to look for bacteria like chlamydia and gonorrhea.
2. Urine and blood tests: The sample of your urine and blood are checked for infections. 
3. Ultrasound: This test can look at the blood flow to the testicles, which is used to rule out testicular torsion. It indicates testicular torsion if the blood flow is lower than normal. And it is a confirmed case of epididymitis if the blood flow is higher.

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